Rule- and Model-Based Expert Systems rmes

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abstract file, 73
advice base, augmented exact, 191
advice base, augmented uncertain, 463
advice base, elementary exact, 71
advice base, elementary uncertain, 361
American Express, 8, 12
applications, 26
argument, askable, elementary exact models, 67, 132
argument, unaskable, elementary exact models, 67
argument,elementary exact basic models, 61
argument,elementary exact extended models, 62
Aristotle, 2, 267
Aristotle, logic, 266
artificial intelligence, 9, 18, 24
AUTHORIZER'S ASSISTANT, 8
automation, 17
auxiliary hypothesis, augmented exact, 197, 205
auxiliary hypothesis, augmented uncertain, 467
auxiliary hypothesis, elementary exact, 77
auxiliary hypothesis, elementary uncertain, 371


backward chaining, 2
backward chaining, augmented exact, 197, 205
backward chaining, augmented uncertain, 456
backward chaining, elementary exact, 38, 77, 84
backward chaining, elementary uncertain, 342
Bargiela, Andrzej, 146
basic models, elementary exact, 60
Bayes's Theorem, 277
Bayes, Thomas, 274
black box, 21
Boole, George, 3, 266
business rule, 27, 549


CADUCEUS, 7
cause-effect relationship, 42
certainty factor, 299
certainty factor algebra, 300
certainty factor algebra, modified, 301
certainty factor, askable conditions, 336
certainty factor, conclusions of relational models, 337, 359
certainty factor, cumulative rules, 311, 314
certainty factor, data mining, 334
certainty factor, disjunctive rules, 321, 323
certainty factor, disjunctive rules, negated conclusions, 328
certainty factor, MYCIN, 7
certainty factor, numerical value, 338
certainty factor, preferences of decision makers, 335
certainty factor, sensitivity, 339
chaining, 14
chaining protocol, 90
chaining, augmented exact, 166, 167, 195
chaining, augmented uncertain, 455
chaining, elementary exact, 37, 75
chaining, elementary uncertain, 341, 363
chaining, elementary uncertain, paradox, 375
characteristic function, 281
Closed World Assumption, 33, 165, 169
COBUY_N.EEB, 94
COCRE.AEB, 241
COCRE.EEB, 127
CODIR.AEB, 254
CODIR.EEB, 140
COINI.EEB, 158
comment, elementary exact bases, 72
conclusion, elementary exact, 39
conclusion, negation for augmented exact, 167
conclusion, negation for augmented uncertain, 457
conclusion, negation for elementary exact, 47
conclusion, negation for elementary uncertain, 345
conclusion, uncertainly false, 308
conclusion, uncertainly true, 308
conclusion, uncertainly undetermined, 308
conclusions, elementary exact, mutually exclusive, 55
condition, askable, elementary exact, 46, 132
condition, elementary exact, 39
condition, unaskable, elementary exact, 47
condition, uncertainly false, 302
condition, uncertainly true, 302
conditions, askable, collectively exhaustive, 54, 183
constraint base, augmented exact, 182
constraint base, augmented uncertain, 457
constraint base, elementary exact, 54, 351
constraint base, elementary uncertain, 354
COWEIGHT1.AEB, 216
COWEIGHT1.EEB, 97
COWEIGHT2.AEB, 224
COWEIGHT2.EEB, 105
COWEIGHT3.EEB, 111
CRE, forward chaining, 127
CRE.AEB, backward chaining, 247
CRE.AEB, forward chaining, 241
CRE.AUB, backward chaining, 519
CRE.AUB, forward chaining, 512
CRE.EEB, backward chaining, 130
CRE.EEB, forward chaining, 128
CRE.EUB, backward chaining, 425
CRE.EUB, forward chaining, 417
credit validation, elementary exact, 118
cumulative rules, global certainty factor, 305
cumulative rules, local certainty factor, 305


daily abstractions, 269
decision maker preferences, 271
decision space, 120
declarative programming, 18
deficiencies, 24
DENDRAL, 6
DIR.AEB, backward chaining, 261
DIR.AEB, forward chaining, 254
DIR.AUB, backward chaining, 539
DIR.AUB, forward chaining, 530
DIR.EEB, backward chaining, 144
DIR.EEB, forward chaining, 141
DIR.EUB, backward chaining, 446
DIR.EUB, forward chaining, 437
disjunctive rules, dominating rule, 321
disjunctive rules, global certainty factor, 306, 321
disjunctive rules, local certainty factor, 321
domain knowledge, 13
dynamic data base , 14


ECDIR.AUB, 530
ECDIR.EUB, 437
ECWEIGHT1.EUB, 381
ECWEIGHT2.AUB, 489
ECWEIGHT2.EUB, 390
ECWEIGHT3.AUB, 498
ECWEIGHT3.EUB, 400
efficiency, 20
exclusive_models, elementary exact, 70
expert system, 13
expert system benefits, 19
expert system shell, 15
expert system shell, rmes EU, 34
expert system shell, rmes_AE, 34, 166
expert system shell, rmes_AU, 455
expert system shell, rmes_EE, 34, 37
expert system shell, rmes_EU, 341
expert system, advantages, 16
expert systems, commercial successes, 8
expert systems,Seminal achievements, 6
explanatory knowledge, 30
extended models, elementary exact, 62


fact, augmented exact, 172
fact, elementary exact, 47
fact, elementary uncertain, 346
Feigenbaum, Ed, 7
Feigenbaum, Ed., 22
flattening, augmented exact rule, 173
flattening, elementary exact rule, 51
flattening, elementary uncertain rule, 347
forward chaining, 2
forward chaining, augmented exact, 196, 197
forward chaining, augmented uncertain, 456
forward chaining, elementary exact, 38, 76, 78
forward chaining, elementary uncertain, 342, 364
Frege, August, 4, 267
fuzzy inference, 289, 296


General Problem Solver, 5
go-ahead condition, askable, elementary exact models, 67
go-ahead condition, augmented exact models, 189
go-ahead condition, augmented uncertain models, 462
go-ahead condition, elementary exact models, 59
go-ahead condition, elementary uncertain models, 358
go-ahead condition, unaskable, elementary exact models, 67
go-ahead condition, uncertain models, 303
granulation, 146
graphics base, augmented exact, 192
graphics base, augmented uncertain, 465
graphics base, elementary exact, 73
graphics base, elementary uncertain, 362


implication, augmented exact rule, 170
implication, elementary exact rule, 44
implication, logic, 44, 170
inconsistency, elementary exact models, 68
inconsistency, elementary exact rules, 48
inconsistency, elementary uncertain rules, 348
inconsistency, external, augmented exact rules, 175
inconsistency, external, augmented uncertain rules, 458
inconsistency, internal, augmented exact rules, 177
inconsistency, internal, augmented uncertain rules, 460
Inference system, 13
information granule, 146
initial capital, 149
initial capital, bill of law, 149
instantiated variable, 30
integer string variable, 30
INTERNIST/CADUCEUS, 7
inverse relations, 463


joint inconsistency, augmented exact rule and constraint bases, 186
joint inconsistency, elementary exact models and rules, 69
joint inconsistency, elementary exact rule and constraint bases,57
joint redundancies , elementary exact rule and constraint bases,58
joint redundancy, augmented exact rule and constraint bases,187


knowledge, 22
knowledge base, 13, 16, 29
knowledge base augmented, 33
knowledge base editor, 14
knowledge base elementary, 33
knowledge base exact, 33
knowledge base exact, deficiencies, 267
knowledge base uncertain, 33
knowledge base, classification, 33
knowledge base, shallow, 24
knowledge base,incremental extension, 17
known arguments, augmented exact models, 189
known arguments, elementary exact models, 67


law and expert systms, 148
law of excluded middle, 266, 267, 272, 273, 276, 280--282, 284,356
legal domain, deterministic, 149
legal domain, nondeterministic, 149, 160
legal expert systems, democracy, 163
legal model base, exact, 153
legal reasoning, 148
legal rule base, exact, 150
legal rule base, uncertain, 453
Lighthill, James, 10
linear models, elementary exact, 63
list of conditions, augmented exact, 168
list of conditions, elementary exact, 39
list of conditions, uncertain, 307
logic, 2
Logic Theorist, 4
logic, inconsistency, 48
logic, inputs and outputs, 42
logic, meaning of assertion, 42
logic, time relationship, 43
logical knowledge, 30
logical string variable, 30
logical variable, 30


Łukasiewicz, Jan, 280


main hypothesis, augmented exact, 197, 205
main hypothesis, augmented uncertain, 467
main hypothesis, elementary exact, 77
main hypothesis, elementary uncertain, 371
managing director, elementary exact, 133
managing human resources, 19
mathematical abstractions, 269
McCarthy, John, 18, 162
membership, 281
Minsky, Marvin, 10
MOCRE.AEB, 239
MOCRE.AUB, 510
MOCRE.EEB, 125
MOCRE.EUB, 414
model base, augmented exact, 166, 188
model base, augmented uncertain, 456, 457
model base, elementary exact, 38, 59
model base, elementary uncertain, 342, 358
model facts, elementary exact models, 67
model, arithmetical, tractable, 38
model, augmented, negatively uncertainly resolved, 462
model, augmented, relational, negatively resolved, 189
model, augmented, relational, positively resolved, 188
model, elementary exact, indeterminate, 62--64
model, elementary exact, resolved, 61, 63--65
model, elementary exact, unresolved, 62, 63, 65
model, elementary, negatively uncertainly resolved, 360
model, elementary, positively uncertainly resolved, 359, 360
MODIR.AEB, 254
MODIR.AUB, 529
MODIR.EEB, 137
MODIR.EUB, 435
modus ponens, 75
MOINI.EEB, 152
monotonicity, elementary exact chaining, 86
MOWEIGHT1.AEB, 214
MOWEIGHT1.AUB, 479
MOWEIGHT1.EEB, 96
MOWEIGHT1.EUB, 381
MOWEIGHT2.AEB, 223
MOWEIGHT2.AUB, 488
MOWEIGHT2.EEB, 104
MOWEIGHT2.EUB, 389
MOWEIGHT3.AEB, 228
MOWEIGHT3.AUB, 497
MOWEIGHT3.EEB, 110
MOWEIGHT3.EUB, 398
MYCIN, 7, 24


negation, 31
negation prefix, 167
negation, double, 167
negation, implicit , 345
nesting, 33
nesting, augmented exact models, 189
nesting, augmented exact rules, 171
nesting, augmented uncertain models, 456
nesting, augmented uncertain rules, 456
nesting, elementary exact models, 65
nesting, elementary exact rules, 46
nesting, elementary uncertain models, 342
nesting, elementary uncertain rules, 342, 344
Newell, Alfred, 4
non-monotonicity, augmented exact chaining, 200


obstacles, 22
Open World Assumption, 32, 43, 93, 165
overriding independence of conditions, 334


Papert,Seymour, 10
Pedrycz, Witold, 146
Plato, 2, 267
polynomial models, elementary exact, 64
predicate, 4
predicate calculus, 3
Principle of CF Positivity, 308, 321, 323, 328
Principle of Maximum CF for All Rules, 322, 324
Principle of Maximum CF for Positively Conditioned Rules, 323,325
Principle of Minimum CF for All Rules, 328, 329
Principle of Minimum CF for Positively Conditioned Rules, 328,331
procedural knowledge, 30
procedural programming, 16
Prolog, 4
proposition, 3
propositional calculus, 3
propositional function, 4, 267
PROSPECTOR, 7


quality, 20
quantifier, 267


R1/XCON/XseL, 8
real string variable, 30
redundancy, augmented exact rules, 180
rmes, iv, 29
rmes_AE, 33
rmes_AU, 33
rmes_EE, 33
rmes_EU, 33
Roman Law, 31, 161, 163, 169
RUBUY.EEB, 92
RUBUY_N.EEB, 93
RUCRE.AEB, 237
RUCRE.AUB, 508
RUCRE.EEB, 121
RUCRE.EUB, 411
RUDIR.AEB, 250
RUDIR.AUB, 525
RUDIR.EEB, 134
RUDIR.EUB, 431
RUINI.EEB, 150
rule, 30
rule base, augmented exact, 166, 168
rule base, augmented uncertain, 456, 457
rule base, elementary exact, 38, 39
rule base, elementary exact, redundancy, 53
rule base, elementary uncertain, 342
rule base,elementary exact, inconsistency, 48
rule, augmented exact, negatively resolved, 168
rule, augmented exact, positively resolved, 168
rule, elementary exact, 39
rule, elementary exact, flat, 51
rule, elementary exact, indeterminate, 41
rule, elementary exact, resolved, 41
rule, elementary exact, unresolved, 41
rule, inconclusively uncertainly resolved, 308
rule, negatively uncertainly resolved, 308
rule, positively uncertainly resolved, 308
rule, uncertain, cumulative, 300, 305
rule, uncertain, disjunctive, 300, 306
rule, uncertain, dominating , 306
rule, uncertainly negatively resolved, 301
rule, uncertainly positively resolved, 301
rule, uncertainly unresolved, 301
RUPPT.AEB, 201, 209
RUPPT.AEB, animation, backward, 206
RUPPT.AEB, animation, forward, 201
RUPPT.AEB, backward chaining, 211
RUPPT.AEB, forward chaining, 210
RUPPT.AUB, 465, 473
RUPPT.AUB, backward chaining, 476
RUPPT.AUB, forward chaining, 474
RUPPT.EEB, 80, 89
RUPPT.EEB, animation, backward, 85
RUPPT.EEB, animation, forward, 80
RUPPT.EEB, backward chaining, 91
RUPPT.EEB, forward chaining, 90
RUPPT.EUB, 376
RUPPT.EUB, backward chaining, 378
RUPPT.EUB, forward chaining, 376
Russell, Bertrand, 4, 267
RUWEIGHT1.AEB, 214
RUWEIGHT1.AUB, 479
RUWEIGHT1.EEB, 95
RUWEIGHT1.EUB, 380
RUWEIGHT2.AEB, 222
RUWEIGHT2.AUB, 487
RUWEIGHT2.EEB, 104
RUWEIGHT2.EUB, 389
RUWEIGHT3.AEB, 228
RUWEIGHT3.AUB, 496
RUWEIGHT3.EEB, 109
RUWEIGHT3.EUB, 398


Simon, Herbert, 4
situation-action relationship, 42
SMART, 9
Socrates, 2, 267
sound base, augmented exact, 194
sound base, augmented uncertain, 465
sound base, elementary exact, 74
sound base, elementary uncertain, 363
string variable, 30
substituting conditions of rules, 49
supplementary knowledge, 30
syllogism, 3


testing cycle, augmented exact, 198
testing cycle, elementary exact, 78
testing, elementary exact, 78
testing, elementary uncertain models, 361
Tower of Hanoi, 5
transformation exact-uncertain, balanced, 344
transformation exact-uncertain, conservative, 343
transformation exact-uncertain, greedy, 344


UCCRE.AUB, 512
UCCRE.EUB, 416
UCDIR.AUB, 530
UCDIR.EUB, 437
uncertain string variable, 30, 301
uncertain variable, 31
uncertainty, 269, 272
uncertainty, Certainty Factor models, 273
uncertainty, fuzzy logic, 280
uncertainty, fuzzy models, 273, 280, 284
uncertainty, fuzzy models, linguistic variable, 283
uncertainty, fuzzy set, 282
uncertainty, probabilistic models, 272, 273, 279, 284
uncertainty, probabilistic models, Bayesian interpretation, 274
uncertainty, probabilistic models, frequentists interpretation, 274
uninstantiated variable, 30
user interface, 14


von Hayek, Friedrich, 22, 162
von Mises, Ludwig, 43, 273


WEIGHT1.AEB, backward chaining, 218, 220
WEIGHT1.AEB, forward chaining, 216
WEIGHT1.AUB, backward chaining, 484
WEIGHT1.AUB, forward chaining, 480
WEIGHT1.EEB, backward chaining, 100, 102
WEIGHT1.EEB,forward chaining, 98
WEIGHT1.EUB, forward chaining, 382
WEIGHT1.EUB,backward chaining, 385
WEIGHT2.AEB, backward chaining, 227
WEIGHT2.AEB, forward chaining, 224
WEIGHT2.AUB, backward chaining, 492
WEIGHT2.AUB, forward chaining, 489
WEIGHT2.EEB, backward chaining, 107
WEIGHT2.EEB, forward chaining, 105
WEIGHT2.EUB, backward chaining, 394
WEIGHT2.EUB, forward chaining, 390
WEIGHT3.AEB, backward chaining, 233
WEIGHT3.AEB, forward chaining, 230
WEIGHT3.AUB, backward chaining, 503
WEIGHT3.AUB, forward chaining, 498
WEIGHT3.EEB, backward chaining, 114
WEIGHT3.EEB, forward chaining, 111
WEIGHT3.EUB, backward chaining, 406
WEIGHT3.EUB, forward chaining, 400
Whitehead, Alfred N., 4, 267


Zadeh, Lotfi A., 146, 281, 286


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